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Novelist Henry James summed up what most of us feel: “Summer afternoon — summer afternoon; to me those have always been the two most beautiful words in the English language.”

Whether you’re lounging by the pool, working in the yard or hiking in the woods, summer is a time for relaxing, doing the things you want to do ... but also for staying safe from lurking dangers such as sunburn, heat stroke, bug bites, poison ivy and foodborne illness.

SUNBURN

You may remember the blistering sunburn you got at the beach when you were in high school. The misery you felt was bad enough, but it also put you at increased risk of melanoma, the most severe type of skin cancer. Anyone can get skin cancer, but the risk is highest in persons with fair skin, light hair and blue eyes ... who spend long hours in the sun.

The best way to protect yourself is to stay out of the sun, particularly during the time when the rays are most intense, from 10 a.m to 4 p.m. When you do venture out, wear more, rather than less, clothes — a wide-brimmed hat, sunglasses and cotton clothing with a tight weave.

On unprotected skin, apply sunscreen with an SPF of 15 or higher 30 minutes before going out and every two hours.

HEAT STRESS

If you’re working in the heat, exercising or just sitting on your couch on a day when the temperature and humidity are in the 90s, you may be at risk of heat stress.

Persons most at risk are athletes who don’t drink enough water, children, persons age 65 and over and those with health conditions such as diabetes, obesity and heart disease.

Early symptoms include thirst, fatigue and cramps in the legs or abdomen. When experiencing those symptoms, you should stop what you’re doing and find a shady place to drink fluids and cool down.

Left untreated, heat exhaustion progresses to heat stroke with symptoms that include dizziness, headaches, nausea, rapid heart beat and body temperature as high as 105 degrees. Damage to the liver, kidneys and brain can be severe enough to cause death.

Everyone needs extra fluids during hot weather. Older persons and others at risk of heat stroke should also seek out cool spots.

BUG BITES

Ticks, mosquitoes and other insects are all part of the hiking or camping experience. Bug bites are usually harmless, but there are notable exceptions.

Lyme disease is caused by bacteria transmitted to humans by the black-legged deer tick. Check yourself and your children for ticks each night before going to bed. If you find a tick, remove it with tweezers, place it in a plastic bag and throw it away.

Lyme disease may start with a small red spot that grows larger. The rash may resemble a bulls eye, and the infected person may develop muscle aches and stiff joints.

West Nile virus, transmitted by mosquitoes, typically produces only mild symptoms in healthy persons. About one percent of infected persons, however, develop severe illness with flu-like symptoms that can lead to death.

Insect repellant containing DEET is your best protection, but don’t use it on babies and use only 10-30 percent for children over two months of age.

POISON IVY

You don’t have to leave your yard to be attacked by poison ivy. Both poison ivy and poison oak grow on plants with clusters of three leaves. Each leaf also has three small leaflets. So the saying should be: “Leaflets of three, let it be!”

If you know you’re going to be working around poison ivy, wear long sleeves, long pants, boots and gloves. Promptly wash your garden tools and any clothing that comes in contact with poison ivy. If you get poison ivy or oak on your skin, rinse immediately. Wash with water only at first to avoid moving and spreading the oil from the poison ivy. Then take a shower with soap and warm water.

FOODBORNE ILLNESS

Undercooked beef and sausage are likely sources, but foodborne illness can also be obtained from contaminated produce, even lettuce or tomatoes.

Always be sure to keep raw and cooked foods separate. Never place cooked meat back on the platter where it rested before it went on the grill.

Another basic rule is to keep hot food hot (above 140 degrees) and cold food cold (under 40 degrees). Don’t leave food out for more than two hours, nor for more than an hour when the temperature is over 90 degrees.

The American Red Cross estimates that at least 70 percent of Americans have experienced some type of medical emergency during the summer months. A few safety precautions can help you keep your summer days relaxed and carefree.

Derek Butler, LAT, ACSM-CES, ATC, has an office at Bay Area Medical Center, Marinette.